International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
adopted by the United Nations General Assembly
entered into force March 23, 1976
The States Parties to the present Covenant,
Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed
in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent
dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members
of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and
peace in the world,
Recognizing that these rights derive from the inherent dignity
of the human person,
Recognizing that, in accordance with the Universal Declaration
of Human Rights, the ideal of free human beings enjoying civil
and political freedom and freedom from fear and want can only
be achieved if conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy
his civil and political rights, as well as his economic, social
and cultural rights,
Considering the obligation of States under the Charter of
the United Nations to promote universal respect for, and observance
of, human rights and freedoms,
Realizing that the individual, having duties to other individuals
and to the community to which he belongs, is under a responsibility
to strive for the promotion and observance of the rights recognized
in the present Covenant,
Agree upon the following articles:
1. All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue
of that right they freely determine their political status and
freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.
2. All peoples may, for their own ends, freely dispose of
their natural wealth and resources without prejudice to any obligations
arising out of international economic co-operation, based upon
the principle of mutual benefit, and international law. In no
case may a people be deprived of its own means of subsistence.
3. The States Parties to the present Covenant, including those
having responsibility for the administration of Non-Self-Governing
and Trust Territories, shall promote the realization of the right
of self-determination, and shall respect that right, in conformity
with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations.
1. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to
respect and to ensure to all individuals within its territory
and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in the
present Covenant, without distinction of any kind, such as race,
colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion,
national or social origin, property, birth or other status.
2. Where not already provided for by existing legislative
or other measures, each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes
to take the necessary steps, in accordance with its constitutional
processes and with the provisions of the present Covenant, to
adopt such legislative or other measures as may be necessary
to give effect to the rights recognized in the present Covenant.
3. Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes:
(a) To ensure that any person whose rights or freedoms as
herein recognized are violated shall have an effective remedy,
notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons
acting in an official capacity;
(b) To ensure that any person claiming such a remedy shall
have his right thereto determined by competent judicial, administrative
or legislative authorities, or by any other competent authority
provided for by the legal system of the State, and to develop
the possibilities of judicial remedy;
(c) To ensure that the competent authorities shall enforce
such remedies when granted.
The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to ensure
the equal right of men and women to the enjoyment of all civil
and political rights set forth in the present Covenant.
1 . In time of public emergency which threatens the life of
the nation and the existence of which is officially proclaimed,
the States Parties to the present Covenant may take measures
derogating from their obligations under the present Covenant
to the extent strictly required by the exigencies of the situation,
provided that such measures are not inconsistent with their other
obligations under international law and do not involve discrimination
solely on the ground of race, colour, sex, language, religion
or social origin.
2. No derogation from articles 6, 7, 8 (paragraphs I and 2),
11, 15, 16 and 18 may be made under this provision.
3. Any State Party to the present Covenant availing itself
of the right of derogation shall immediately inform the other
States Parties to the present Covenant, through the intermediary
of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, of the provisions
from which it has derogated and of the reasons by which it was
actuated. A further communication shall be made, through the
same intermediary, on the date on which it terminates such derogation.
1. Nothing in the present Covenant may be interpreted as implying
for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity
or perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights
and freedoms recognized herein or at their limitation to a greater
extent than is provided for in the present Covenant.
2. There shall be no restriction upon or derogation from any
of the fundamental human rights recognized or existing in any
State Party to the present Covenant pursuant to law, conventions,
regulations or custom on the pretext that the present Covenant
does not recognize such rights or that it recognizes them to
a lesser extent.
1. Every human being has the inherent right to life. This
right shall be protected by law. No one shall be arbitrarily
deprived of his life.
2. In countries which have not abolished the death penalty,
sentence of death may be imposed only for the most serious crimes
in accordance with the law in force at the time of the commission
of the crime and not contrary to the provisions of the present
Covenant and to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment
of the Crime of Genocide. This penalty can only be carried out
pursuant to a final judgement rendered by a competent court.
3. When deprivation of life constitutes the crime of genocide,
it is understood that nothing in this article shall authorize
any State Party to the present Covenant to derogate in any way
from any obligation assumed under the provisions of the Convention
on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.
4. Anyone sentenced to death shall have the right to seek
pardon or commutation of the sentence. Amnesty, pardon or commutation
of the sentence of death may be granted in all cases.
5. Sentence of death shall not be imposed for crimes committed
by persons below eighteen years of age and shall not be carried
out on pregnant women.
6. Nothing in this article shall be invoked to delay or to
prevent the abolition of capital punishment by any State Party
to the present Covenant.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman
or degrading treatment or punishment. In particular, no one shall
be subjected without his free consent to medical or scientific
1. No one shall be held in slavery; slavery and the slave-trade
in all their forms shall be prohibited.
2. No one shall be held in servitude.
(a) No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory
(b) Paragraph 3 (a) shall not be held to preclude, in countries
where imprisonment with hard labour may be imposed as a punishment
for a crime, the performance of hard labour in pursuance of a
sentence to such punishment by a competent court;
(c) For the purpose of this paragraph the term "forced
or compulsory labour" shall not include:
(i) Any work or service, not referred to in subparagraph (b),
normally required of a person who is under detention in consequence
of a lawful order of a court, or of a person during conditional
release from such detention;
(ii) Any service of a military character and, in countries
where conscientious objection is recognized, any national service
required by law of conscientious objectors;
(iii) Any service exacted in cases of emergency or calamity
threatening the life or well-being of the community;
(iv) Any work or service which forms part of normal civil
1. Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention. No
one shall be deprived of his liberty except on such grounds and
in accordance with such procedure as are established by law.
2. Anyone who is arrested shall be informed, at the time of
arrest, of the reasons for his arrest and shall be promptly informed
of any charges against him.
3. Anyone arrested or detained on a criminal charge shall
be brought promptly before a judge or other officer authorized
by law to exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial
within a reasonable time or to release. It shall not be the general
rule that persons awaiting trial shall be detained in custody,
but release may be subject to guarantees to appear for trial,
at any other stage of the judicial proceedings, and, should occasion
arise, for execution of the judgement.
4. Anyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or detention
shall be entitled to take proceedings before a court, in order
that court may decide without delay on the lawfulness of his
detention and order his release if the detention is not lawful.
5. Anyone who has been the victim of unlawful arrest or detention
shall have an enforceable right to compensation.
1. All persons deprived of their liberty shall be treated
with humanity and with respect for the inherent dignity of the
(a) Accused persons shall, save in exceptional circumstances,
be segregated from convicted persons and shall be subject to
separate treatment appropriate to their status as unconvicted
(b) Accused juvenile persons shall be separated from adults
and brought as speedily as possible for adjudication. 3. The
penitentiary system shall comprise treatment of prisoners the
essential aim of which shall be their reformation and social
rehabilitation. Juvenile offenders shall be segregated from adults
and be accorded treatment appropriate to their age and legal
No one shall be imprisoned merely on the ground of inability
to fulfil a contractual obligation.
1. Everyone lawfully within the territory of a State shall,
within that territory, have the right to liberty of movement
and freedom to choose his residence.
2. Everyone shall be free to leave any country, including
3. The above-mentioned rights shall not be subject to any
restrictions except those which are provided by law, are necessary
to protect national security, public order (ordre public), public
health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others, and are
consistent with the other rights recognized in the present Covenant.
4. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of the right to enter
his own country.
An alien lawfully in the territory of a State Party to the
present Covenant may be expelled therefrom only in pursuance
of a decision reached in accordance with law and shall, except
where compelling reasons of national security otherwise require,
be allowed to submit the reasons against his expulsion and to
have his case reviewed by, and be represented for the purpose
before, the competent authority or a person or persons especially
designated by the competent authority.
1. All persons shall be equal before the courts and tribunals.
In the determination of any criminal charge against him, or of
his rights and obligations in a suit at law, everyone shall be
entitled to a fair and public hearing by a competent, independent
and impartial tribunal established by law. The press and the
public may be excluded from all or part of a trial for reasons
of morals, public order (ordre public) or national security in
a democratic society, or when the interest of the private lives
of the parties so requires, or to the extent strictly necessary
in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity
would prejudice the interests of justice; but any judgement rendered
in a criminal case or in a suit at law shall be made public except
where the interest of juvenile persons otherwise requires or
the proceedings concern matrimonial disputes or the guardianship
2. Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall have the
right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to
3. In the determination of any criminal charge against him,
everyone shall be entitled to the following minimum guarantees,
in full equality:
(a) To be informed promptly and in detail in a language which
he understands of the nature and cause of the charge against
(b) To have adequate time and facilities for the preparation
of his defence and to communicate with counsel of his own choosing;
(c) To be tried without undue delay;
(d) To be tried in his presence, and to defend himself in
person or through legal assistance of his own choosing; to be
informed, if he does not have legal assistance, of this right;
and to have legal assistance assigned to him, in any case where
the interests of justice so require, and without payment by him
in any such case if he does not have sufficient means to pay
(e) To examine, or have examined, the witnesses against him
and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on
his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him;
(f) To have the free assistance of an interpreter if he cannot
understand or speak the language used in court;
(g) Not to be compelled to testify against himself or to confess
4. In the case of juvenile persons, the procedure shall be
such as will take account of their age and the desirability of
promoting their rehabilitation.
5. Everyone convicted of a crime shall have the right to his
conviction and sentence being reviewed by a higher tribunal according
6. When a person has by a final decision been convicted of
a criminal offence and when subsequently his conviction has been
reversed or he has been pardoned on the ground that a new or
newly discovered fact shows conclusively that there has been
a miscarriage of justice, the person who has suffered punishment
as a result of such conviction shall be compensated according
to law, unless it is proved that the non-disclosure of the unknown
fact in time is wholly or partly attributable to him.
7. No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again for
an offence for which he has already been finally convicted or
acquitted in accordance with the law and penal procedure of each
1 . No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on
account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal
offence, under national or international law, at the time when
it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than
the one that was applicable at the time when the criminal offence
was committed. If, subsequent to the commission of the offence,
provision is made by law for the imposition of the lighter penalty,
the offender shall benefit thereby.
2. Nothing in this article shall prejudice the trial and punishment
of any person for any act or omission which, at the time when
it was committed, was criminal according to the general principles
of law recognized by the community of nations.
Everyone shall have the right to recognition everywhere as
a person before the law.
1. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference
with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful
attacks on his honour and reputation.
2. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against
such interference or attacks.
1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience
and religion. This right shall include freedom to have or to
adopt a religion or belief of his choice, and freedom, either
individually or in community with others and in public or private,
to manifest his religion or belief in worship, observance, practice
2. No one shall be subject to coercion which would impair
his freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice.
3. Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject
only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary
to protect public safety, order, health, or morals or the fundamental
rights and freedoms of others. 4. The States Parties to the present
Covenant undertake to have respect for the liberty of parents
and, when applicable, legal guardians to ensure the religious
and moral education of their children in conformity with their
1. Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without
2. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression;
this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart
information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers,
either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or
through any other media of his choice.
3. The exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2
of this article carries with it special duties and responsibilities.
It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, but these
shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:
(a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others;
(b) For the protection of national security or of public order
(ordre public), or of public health or morals.
1. Any propaganda for war shall be prohibited by law.
2. Any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that
constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence
shall be prohibited by law.
The right of peaceful assembly shall be recognized. No restrictions
may be placed on the exercise of this right other than those
imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in
a democratic society in the interests of national security or
public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of
public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms
1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of association
with others, including the right to form and join trade unions
for the protection of his interests.
2. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right
other than those which are prescribed by law and which are necessary
in a democratic society in the interests of national security
or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection
of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and
freedoms of others. This article shall not prevent the imposition
of lawful restrictions on members of the armed forces and of
the police in their exercise of this right.
3. Nothing in this article shall authorize States Parties
to the International Labour Organisation Convention of 1948 concerning
Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize
to take legislative measures which would prejudice, or to apply
the law in such a manner as to prejudice, the guarantees provided
for in that Convention.
1. The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of
society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
2. The right of men and women of marriageable age to marry
and to found a family shall be recognized.
3. No marriage shall be entered into without the free and
full consent of the intending spouses.
4. States Parties to the present Covenant shall take appropriate
steps to ensure equality of rights and responsibilities of spouses
as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. In the
case of dissolution, provision shall be made for the necessary
protection of any children.
1. Every child shall have, without any discrimination as to
race, colour, sex, language, religion, national or social origin,
property or birth, the right to such measures of protection as
are required by his status as a minor, on the part of his family,
society and the State.
2. Every child shall be registered immediately after birth
and shall have a name.
3. Every child has the right to acquire a nationality.
Every citizen shall have the right and the opportunity, without
any of the distinctions mentioned in article 2 and without unreasonable
(a) To take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly
or through freely chosen representatives;
(b) To vote and to be elected at genuine periodic elections
which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held
by secret ballot, guaranteeing the free expression of the will
of the electors;
(c) To have access, on general terms of equality, to public
service in his country.
All persons are equal before the law and are entitled without
any discrimination to the equal protection of the law. In this
respect, the law shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee
to all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination
on any ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion,
political or other opinion, national or social origin, property,
birth or other status.
PART IV Article 28
In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities
exist, persons belonging to such minorities shall not be denied
the right, in community with the other members of their group,
to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practise their own
religion, or to use their own language.
1. There shall be established a Human Rights Committee (hereafter
referred to in the present Covenant as the Committee). It shall
consist of eighteen members and shall carry out the functions
2. The Committee shall be composed of nationals of the States
Parties to the present Covenant who shall be persons of high
moral character and recognized competence in the field of human
rights, consideration being given to the usefulness of the participation
of some persons having legal experience.
3. The members of the Committee shall be elected and shall
serve in their personal capacity.
1 . The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret
ballot from a list of persons possessing the qualifications prescribed
in article 28 and nominated for the purpose by the States Parties
to the present Covenant.
2. Each State Party to the present Covenant may nominate not
more than two persons. These persons shall be nationals of the
3. A person shall be eligible for renomination.
1. The initial election shall be held no later than six months
after the date of the entry into force of the present Covenant.
2. At least four months before the date of each election to
the Committee, other than an election to fill a vacancy declared
in accordance with article 34, the Secretary-General of the United
Nations shall address a written invitation to the States Parties
to the present Covenant to submit their nominations for membership
of the Committee within three months.
3. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall prepare
a list in alphabetical order of all the persons thus nominated,
with an indication of the States Parties which have nominated
them, and shall submit it to the States Parties to the present
Covenant no later than one month before the date of each election.
4. Elections of the members of the Committee shall be held
at a meeting of the States Parties to the present Covenant convened
by the Secretary General of the United Nations at the Headquarters
of the United Nations. At that meeting, for which two thirds
of the States Parties to the present Covenant shall constitute
a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall be those
nominees who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute
majority of the votes of the representatives of States Parties
present and voting.
1. The Committee may not include more than one national of
the same State.
2. In the election of the Committee, consideration shall be
given to equitable geographical distribution of membership and
to the representation of the different forms of civilization
and of the principal legal systems.
1. The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term
of four years. They shall be eligible for re-election if renominated.
However, the terms of nine of the members elected at the first
election shall expire at the end of two years; immediately after
the first election, the names of these nine members shall be
chosen by lot by the Chairman of the meeting referred to in article
30, paragraph 4.
2. Elections at the expiry of office shall be held in accordance
with the preceding articles of this part of the present Covenant.
1. If, in the unanimous opinion of the other members, a member
of the Committee has ceased to carry out his functions for any
cause other than absence of a temporary character, the Chairman
of the Committee shall notify the Secretary-General of the United
Nations, who shall then declare the seat of that member to be
2. In the event of the death or the resignation of a member
of the Committee, the Chairman shall immediately notify the Secretary-General
of the United Nations, who shall declare the seat vacant from
the date of death or the date on which the resignation takes
1. When a vacancy is declared in accordance with article 33
and if the term of office of the member to be replaced does not
expire within six months of the declaration of the vacancy, the
Secretary-General of the United Nations shall notify each of
the States Parties to the present Covenant, which may within
two months submit nominations in accordance with article 29 for
the purpose of filling the vacancy.
2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall prepare
a list in alphabetical order of the persons thus nominated and
shall submit it to the States Parties to the present Covenant.
The election to fill the vacancy shall then take place in accordance
with the relevant provisions of this part of the present Covenant.
3. A member of the Committee elected to fill a vacancy declared
in accordance with article 33 shall hold office for the remainder
of the term of the member who vacated the seat on the Committee
under the provisions of that article.
The members of the Committee shall, with the approval of the
General Assembly of the United Nations, receive emoluments from
United Nations resources on such terms and conditions as the
General Assembly may decide, having regard to the importance
of the Committee's responsibilities.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide
the necessary staff and facilities for the effective performance
of the functions of the Committee under the present Covenant.
1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall convene
the initial meeting of the Committee at the Headquarters of the
2. After its initial meeting, the Committee shall meet at
such times as shall be provided in its rules of procedure.
3. The Committee shall normally meet at the Headquarters of
the United Nations or at the United Nations Office at Geneva.
Every member of the Committee shall, before taking up his
duties, make a solemn declaration in open committee that he will
perform his functions impartially and conscientiously.
1. The Committee shall elect its officers for a term of two
years. They may be re-elected.
2. The Committee shall establish its own rules of procedure,
but these rules shall provide, inter alia, that:
(a) Twelve members shall constitute a quorum;
(b) Decisions of the Committee shall be made by a majority
vote of the members present.
1. The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to
submit reports on the measures they have adopted which give effect
to the rights recognized herein and on the progress made in the
enjoyment of those rights:
(a) Within one year of the entry into force of the present
Covenant for the States Parties concerned;
(b) Thereafter whenever the Committee so requests.
2. All reports shall be submitted to the Secretary-General
of the United Nations, who shall transmit them to the Committee
for consideration. Reports shall indicate the factors and difficulties,
if any, affecting the implementation of the present Covenant.
3. The Secretary-General of the United Nations may, after
consultation with the Committee, transmit to the specialized
agencies concerned copies of such parts of the reports as may
fall within their field of competence.
4. The Committee shall study the reports submitted by the
States Parties to the present Covenant. It shall transmit its
reports, and such general comments as it may consider appropriate,
to the States Parties. The Committee may also transmit to the
Economic and Social Council these comments along with the copies
of the reports it has received from States Parties to the present
5. The States Parties to the present Covenant may submit to
the Committee observations on any comments that may be made in
accordance with paragraph 4 of this article.
1. A State Party to the present Covenant may at any time declare
under this article that it recognizes the competence of the Committee
to receive and consider communications to the effect that a State
Party claims that another State Party is not fulfilling its obligations
under the present Covenant. Communications under this article
may be received and considered only if submitted by a State Party
which has made a declaration recognizing in regard to itself
the competence of the Committee. No communication shall be received
by the Committee if it concerns a State Party which has not made
such a declaration. Communications received under this article
shall be dealt with in accordance with the following procedure:
(a) If a State Party to the present Covenant considers that
another State Party is not giving effect to the provisions of
the present Covenant, it may, by written communication, bring
the matter to the attention of that State Party. Within three
months after the receipt of the communication the receiving State
shall afford the State which sent the communication an explanation,
or any other statement in writing clarifying the matter which
should include, to the extent possible and pertinent, reference
to domestic procedures and remedies taken, pending, or available
in the matter;
(b) If the matter is not adjusted to the satisfaction of both
States Parties concerned within six months after the receipt
by the receiving State of the initial communication, either State
shall have the right to refer the matter to the Committee, by
notice given to the Committee and to the other State;
(c) The Committee shall deal with a matter referred to it
only after it has ascertained that all available domestic remedies
have been invoked and exhausted in the matter, in conformity
with the generally recognized principles of international law.
This shall not be the rule where the application of the remedies
is unreasonably prolonged;
(d) The Committee shall hold closed meetings when examining
communications under this article;
(e) Subject to the provisions of subparagraph (c), the Committee
shall make available its good offices to the States Parties concerned
with a view to a friendly solution of the matter on the basis
of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms as recognized
in the present Covenant;
(f) In any matter referred to it, the Committee may call upon
the States Parties concerned, referred to in subparagraph (b),
to supply any relevant information;
(g) The States Parties concerned, referred to in subparagraph
(b), shall have the right to be represented when the matter is
being considered in the Committee and to make submissions orally
and/or in writing;
(h) The Committee shall, within twelve months after the date
of receipt of notice under subparagraph (b), submit a report:
(i) If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (e) is
reached, the Committee shall confine its report to a brief statement
of the facts and of the solution reached;
(ii) If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (e) is
not reached, the Committee shall confine its report to a brief
statement of the facts; the written submissions and record of
the oral submissions made by the States Parties concerned shall
be attached to the report. In every matter, the report shall
be communicated to the States Parties concerned.
2. The provisions of this article shall come into force when
ten States Parties to the present Covenant have made declarations
under paragraph I of this article. Such declarations shall be
deposited by the States Parties with the Secretary-General of
the United Nations, who shall transmit copies thereof to the
other States Parties. A declaration may be withdrawn at any time
by notification to the Secretary-General. Such a withdrawal shall
not prejudice the consideration of any matter which is the subject
of a communication already transmitted under this article; no
further communication by any State Party shall be received after
the notification of withdrawal of the declaration has been received
by the Secretary-General, unless the State Party concerned has
made a new declaration.
(a) If a matter referred to the Committee in accordance with
article 41 is not resolved to the satisfaction of the States
Parties concerned, the Committee may, with the prior consent
of the States Parties concerned, appoint an ad hoc Conciliation
Commission (hereinafter referred to as the Commission). The good
offices of the Commission shall be made available to the States
Parties concerned with a view to an amicable solution of the
matter on the basis of respect for the present Covenant;
(b) The Commission shall consist of five persons acceptable
to the States Parties concerned. If the States Parties concerned
fail to reach agreement within three months on all or part of
the composition of the Commission, the members of the Commission
concerning whom no agreement has been reached shall be elected
by secret ballot by a two-thirds majority vote of the Committee
from among its members.
2. The members of the Commission shall serve in their personal
capacity. They shall not be nationals of the States Parties concerned,
or of a State not Party to the present Covenant, or of a State
Party which has not made a declaration under article 41.
3. The Commission shall elect its own Chairman and adopt its
own rules of procedure.
4. The meetings of the Commission shall normally be held at
the Headquarters of the United Nations or at the United Nations
Office at Geneva. However, they may be held at such other convenient
places as the Commission may determine in consultation with the
Secretary-General of the United Nations and the States Parties
5. The secretariat provided in accordance with article 36
shall also service the commissions appointed under this article.
6. The information received and collated by the Committee
shall be made available to the Commission and the Commission
may call upon the States Parties concerned to supply any other
relevant information. 7. When the Commission has fully considered
the matter, but in any event not later than twelve months after
having been seized of the matter, it shall submit to the Chairman
of the Committee a report for communication to the States Parties
(a) If the Commission is unable to complete its consideration
of the matter within twelve months, it shall confine its report
to a brief statement of the status of its consideration of the
(b) If an amicable solution to the matter on tie basis of
respect for human rights as recognized in the present Covenant
is reached, the Commission shall confine its report to a brief
statement of the facts and of the solution reached;
(c) If a solution within the terms of subparagraph (b) is
not reached, the Commission's report shall embody its findings
on all questions of fact relevant to the issues between the States
Parties concerned, and its views on the possibilities of an amicable
solution of the matter. This report shall also contain the written
submissions and a record of the oral submissions made by the
States Parties concerned;
(d) If the Commission's report is submitted under subparagraph
(c), the States Parties concerned shall, within three months
of the receipt of the report, notify the Chairman of the Committee
whether or not they accept the contents of the report of the
8. The provisions of this article are without prejudice to
the responsibilities of the Committee under article 41.
9. The States Parties concerned shall share equally all the
expenses of the members of the Commission in accordance with
estimates to be provided by the Secretary-General of the United
10. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be empowered
to pay the expenses of the members of the Commission, if necessary,
before reimbursement by the States Parties concerned, in accordance
with paragraph 9 of this article.
The members of the Committee, and of the ad hoc conciliation
commissions which may be appointed under article 42, shall be
entitled to the facilities, privileges and immunities of experts
on mission for the United Nations as laid down in the relevant
sections of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of
the United Nations.
The provisions for the implementation of the present Covenant
shall apply without prejudice to the procedures prescribed in
the field of human rights by or under the constituent instruments
and the conventions of the United Nations and of the specialized
agencies and shall not prevent the States Parties to the present
Covenant from having recourse to other procedures for settling
a dispute in accordance with general or special international
agreements in force between them.
The Committee shall submit to the General Assembly of the
United Nations, through the Economic and Social Council, an annual
report on its activities.
Article 46 .
Nothing in the present Covenant shall be interpreted as impairing
the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and of the
constitutions of the specialized agencies which define the respective
responsibilities of the various organs of the United Nations
and of the specialized agencies in regard to the matters dealt
with in the present Covenant.
Nothing in the present Covenant shall be interpreted as impairing
the inherent right of all peoples to enjoy and utilize fully
and freely their natural wealth and resources.
1. The present Covenant is open for signature by any State
Member of the United Nations or member of any of its specialized
agencies, by any State Party to the Statute of the International
Court of Justice, and by any other State which has been invited
by the General Assembly of the United Nations to become a Party
to the present Covenant.
2. The present Covenant is subject to ratification. Instruments
of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General
of the United Nations.
3. The present Covenant shall be open to accession by any
State referred to in paragraph 1 of this article.
4. Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument
of accession with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
5. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform
all States which have signed this Covenant or acceded to it of
the deposit of each instrument of ratification or accession.
1. The present Covenant shall enter into force three months
after the date of the deposit with the Secretary-General of the
United Nations of the thirty-fifth instrument of ratification
or instrument of accession.
2. For each State ratifying the present Covenant or acceding
to it after the deposit of the thirty-fifth instrument of ratification
or instrument of accession, the present Covenant shall enter
into force three months after the date of the deposit of its
own instrument of ratification or instrument of accession.
The provisions of the present Covenant shall extend to all
parts of federal States without any limitations or exceptions.
1. Any State Party to the present Covenant may propose an
amendment and file it with the Secretary-General of the United
Nations. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall thereupon
communicate any proposed amendments to the States Parties to
the present Covenant with a request that they notify him whether
they favour a conference of States Parties for the purpose of
considering and voting upon the proposals. In the event that
at least one third of the States Parties favours such a conference,
the Secretary-General shall convene the conference under the
auspices of the United Nations. Any amendment adopted by a majority
of the States Parties present and voting at the conference shall
be submitted to the General Assembly of the United Nations for
2. Amendments shall come into force when they have been approved
by the General Assembly of the United Nations and accepted by
a two-thirds majority of the States Parties to the present Covenant
in accordance with their respective constitutional processes.
3. When amendments come into force, they shall be binding on
those States Parties which have accepted them, other States Parties
still being bound by the provisions of the present Covenant and
any earlier amendment which they have accepted.
Irrespective of the notifications made under article 48, paragraph
5, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all
States referred to in paragraph I of the same article of the
(a) Signatures, ratifications and accessions under article
(b) The date of the entry into force of the present Covenant
under article 49 and the date of the entry into force of any
amendments under article 51.
1. The present Covenant, of which the Chinese, English, French,
Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited
in the archives of the United Nations.
2. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit
certified copies of the present Covenant to all States referred
to in article 48.